Dissociation of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) from the inhibitory protein latency-associated peptide (LAP) can occur from low doses of X-ray irradiation of the LAP–TGF-β1 complex, resulting in the activation of TGF-β1 and can have health-related consequences. Using the tools and knowledge developed in the study of radiation damage in the crystallographic setting, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and complementary techniques suggest an activation process that is initiated but not driven by the initial X-ray exposure. LAP is revealed to be extended when not bound to TGF-β1 and has a different structural conformation compared to the bound state. These studies pave the way for the structural understanding of systems impacted at therapeutic X-ray doses and show the potential impact of radiation damage studies beyond their original intent. These results were published in a paper entitled “Structural consequences of transforming growth factor beta-1 activation from near-therapeutic X-ray doses” by Timothy Stachowski, Thomas D. Granta, and Edward H. Snell in Journal of Synchrotron Radiation.